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If you think Hamlet is just a name or a word, please stop reading now, or read about the Infinite Monkey Theorem. When signing a paper, all you need to do is append your signature to the text of a document.

Bitcoin and cryptocurrency algorithms and implementation tutorial. | Toptal

A digital signature is similar: you just need to append your personal data to the document you are signing. If you understand that the hashing algorithm adheres to the rule where even the smallest change in input data must produce significant difference in output , then it is obvious that the HASH value created for the original document will be different from the HASH value created for the document with the appended signature. A combination of the original document and the HASH value produced for the document with your personal data appended is a digitally signed document.

And this is how we get to your virtual identity , which is defined as the data you appended to the document before you created that HASH value. Next, you need to make sure that your signature cannot be copied, and no one can execute any transaction on your behalf. The best way to make sure that your signature is secured, is to keep it yourself, and provide a different method for someone else to validate the signed document. Again, we can fall back on technology and algorithms that are readily available.

What we need to use is public-key cryptography also known as asymmetric cryptography.

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To make this work, you need to create a private key and a public key. These two keys will be in some kind of mathematical correlation and will depend on each other. The algorithm that you will use to make these keys will assure that each private key will have a different public key. As their names suggest, a private key is information that you will keep just for yourself, while a public key is information that you will share. If you use your private key your identity and original document as input values for the signing algorithm to create a HASH value, assuming you kept your key secret, you can be sure that no one else can produce the same HASH value for that document.

A functional and decentralised digital currency

If anyone needs to validate your signature, he or she will use the original document, the HASH value you produced, and your public key as inputs for the signature verifying algorithm to verify that these values match. Assuming that you have implemented P2P communication, mechanisms for creating digital identities private and public keys , and provided ways for users to sign documents using their private keys, you are ready to start sending information to your peers.

Since we do not have a central authority that will validate how much money you have, the system will have to ask you about it every time, and then check if you lied or not. So, your transaction record might contain the following information:. The only thing left to do is digitally sign the transaction record with your private key and transmit the transaction record to your peers in the network.

Your job is done. However, your medication will not be paid for until the whole network agrees that you really did have coins, and therefore could execute this transaction. Only after your transaction is validated will your pharmacist get the funds and send you the medication. Miners are known to be very hard working people who are, in my opinion, heavily underpaid. In the digital world of cryptocurrency, miners play a very similar role, except in this case, they do the computationally-intensive work instead of digging piles of dirt. Unlike real miners, some cryptocurrency miners earned a small fortune over the past five years, but many others lost a fortune on this risky endeavour.

What is Bitcoin?

Miners are the core component of the system and their main purpose is to confirm the validity of each and every transaction requested by users. In order to confirm the validity of your transaction or a combination of several transactions requested by a few other users , miners will do two things.


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They will look into the history of your transactions to verify that you actually had coins to begin with. Once your account balance is confirmed, they will generate a specific HASH value. This hash value must have a specific format; it must start with certain number of zeros. Considering that even the smallest change in input data must produce a significant difference in output HASH value , miners have a very difficult task. They need to find a specific value for a proof-of-work variable that will produce a HASH beginning with zeros.


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  8. Once a miner finds the proper value for proof-of-work, he or she is entitled to a transaction fee the single coin you were willing to pay , which can be added as part of the validated transaction. Every validated transaction is transmitted to peers in the network and stored in a specific database format known as the Blockchain. But what happens if the number of miners goes up, and their hardware becomes much more efficient? As the hash rate goes up, so does the mining difficulty, thus ensuring equilibrium. When more hashing power is introduced into the network, the difficulty goes up and vice versa; if many miners decide to pull the plug because their operation is no longer profitable, difficulty is readjusted to match the new hash rate.

    The blockchain contains the history of all transactions performed in the system. Every validated transaction, or batch of transactions, becomes another ring in the chain. Every single blockchain development company relies on this public ledger. So, the Bitcoin blockchain is, essentially, a public ledger where transactions are listed in a chronological order. There is no limit to how many miners may be active in your system.

    Why Do Bitcoins Have Value?

    This means that it is possible for two or more miners to validate the same transaction. If this happens, the system will check the total effort each miner invested in validating the transaction by simply counting zeros. The miner that invested more effort found more leading zeros will prevail and his or her block will be accepted.

    The first rule of the Bitcoin system is that there can be a maximum of 21,, Bitcoins generated. This number has still not been achieved, and according to current trends, it is thought that this number will be reached by the year However, Bitcoin system supports fractional values down to the eight decimal 0.

    This smallest unit of a bitcoin is called a Satoshi , in honor of Satoshi Nakamoto, the anonymous developer behind the Bitcoin protocol. New coins are created as a reward to miners for validating transactions. This reward is not the transaction fee that you specified when you created a transaction record, but it is defined by the system. The reward amount decreases over time and eventually will be set to zero once the total number of coins issued 21m has been reached.

    When this happens, transaction fees will play a much more important role since miners might choose to prioritize more valuable transactions for validation. Apart from setting the upper limit in maximum number of coins, the Bitcoin system also uses an interesting way to limit daily production of new coins. Lightning Network Our own implementation of the Lightning protocol.

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    Massive transaction fees in BTC and BTC-based apps

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