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Accordingly, Pact code is executed directly on the ledger and is stored in a human-readable format. Pact code has error messages and Pact contracts are upgradable allowing developers to fix errors or adapt logic as business needs evolve. This hybrid solution allows users to take advantage of the benefits from both public and private blockchains without compromise, thus enabling use cases that were previously not possible.

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Kadena is a hybrid blockchain platform consisting of a public chain protocol called Chainweb and a private chain protocol called Kuro. The public and private networks are interoperable through the smart contract language Pact. HEADLINE: Chainweb is a braided, parallelized proof-of-work consensus mechanism that improves throughput and scalability while maintaining the security and integrity found in Bitcoin.

Resources for deploying Kuro are available at the Private chain deployment page. HEADLINE: Pact is a human readable and Turing Incomplete smart contract language purpose-built for blockchains with powerful security features including full Formal Verification of user code, error messages, contract upgradability, support for interoperability, and strong permission and access control.

Resources for using Pact are available at the Public chain interaction page. Table of contents Why Kadena Matters 1. Then you derive a total sorting. You have edges from blocks And they are each confirming the genesis block. They confirm their own edge to them. There's only one chain.

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The edge has 1 vote. When 3 merges it, they have to pick between them somehow, and we will get to that somehow. He will cast his vote to that and to himself. So you get these edges in the graph that start to get votes. When the other blocks follow this algorithm, we see that initially the 1 and 2 were tied, and then over here we have the edge from one to zero has five votes, and the edge from 2 to 0 has one, and to change the direction of hte main chain you have to put confirmations on block 2, and the honest half of the network is increasing the confirmatons on this one main chain only.

It's simple to fix though. I wanted to show what happens when if you never have the chain come together at a single point, this edge gets really strong. This graphing algorithm is not reliant on things collapsing together. You can have a perpetually very wide graph and you still get your security. Okay, so, I kind of went over this already. If you want to reorg the chain, then you have to pick an edge and then mine blocks off that edge where none of those blocks have any of these blocks in their ancestry and they have to get up to 14 confirmations and then you can move the main chain.

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I'm going to skip the "almost" part. You can read the slides. I don't have enough time. If you have blocks really slow, you bring block time really low, one side has more confirmations and if you look at the network frozen one side is winning but by the time that the othe rsid knows the other side is winning, they might have more blocks. You can have a centerpoint attacker that distributes hashrate to both sides and keeps them balanced to prevent the network from converging. I would like to bring the block time to lower than 6 seconds, but there's this convergence attack where an attacker can stall consensus probably indefinitely at least commit censorship or whatever.

I don't know how to fix this without introducing weird backbendy things that don't seem good. How do we sort the blocks not on the main chain? We start with no parent should be in our final ordering, no parent should come in front of its child. For each block in the main chain, you basically start with that block, you include all of the ancestors that aren't in the main chain yet.

You pick an ordering from the ancestors, you do a mini main chain. So you start with 0, then we go with 2, and that's the next block in the main chain. No ancestors in either of those. Then we go to 4, and we grab 1, and then we look at the chain as it was when 4 was created, and we're going to organize the blocks by edge-weight.

And this is really important because we're looking at how 4 saw it, adding things in the future cannot change the ordering of these extra blocks. And so the only way with this algorithm to mutate any of the past history is to modify the main chain and as we've shown it's difficult to modify the main chain once convergence has happened and once enough confirmations have been put in place.

Transaction fees work very differently. Two blocks might mine the same transactions at the same time. Miners are losing transaction fees in this case. So you have to take a probabilistic approach, basically the whole transaction fee landscape is completely different from in bitcoin. Also, if you are fully inclusive and allow blocks infinitely block, you might have miners that hold blocks that don't announce them for a month or two, and then all at once it announces the blocks and it's a big congestion the network has to do. If there are no orphan blocks, then there are easier double spend attempts.

In bitcoin it's pretty expensive so nobdy tries. For Dos attacks hwat you get is you get a group that can mine two or three months, drop all the blocks at once. If you're more than blocks behind, then we wont count you as in the chain. So this actually opens up a window to cause oprhans.


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If I'm a malicious miner and I can get my blocks in front of the rest of the networks' blocks, probabilistically, then I can cause orphans on the rest of the network. We want to make sure that the amount of damage by an attacker lucky enough to get confirmations deep, which is like 1 in 10, chance with , blocks per month a high hashrate miner can do this frequently. So we allow the headers to be viewed by the graph.

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We disregard work from blocks older than blocks behind; but if there are blocks that depend on the blocks you have invalidated, then you allow those blocks to be included. So if an attacker manages to get or blocks ahead and gets to displace blocks instead of the honest block losing blocks they only lose 50 blocks. It's sort of an acceptable change. This is the really important one.

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It's a big concern. I'll also observe that trying to brutefore a private key is really easy, each attempt does not take much energy, you can do hundreds or thousands per second. If it's an 8-bit private key, it's trivial to break. In bitcoin we use much larger keys. Each attempt is trivial, but getting a real bitcoin private key is completely impractical. In jute, we do the same thing. Instead of waiting for 6 confirmations, we wait for 50 or confirmations.

Since the block time is 6 seconds, it's not so bad. I wrote a simulator for double spending, like attacker hashrate parameters and network latency parameters. The results are posted in the repo. We have blocks commit to blocks back maximum gap height. What this means is that when you're doing SPV the SPV nodes can draw the graph, it's really easy to draw the graph and not download or verify transactions. They know tha tout of the commitments that the block made which ones are invalid.


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If there is a reorg that went 80 blocks deep, then they know to ignore those 80 commitments and take the commitments from deeper back, and they wait for more confirmations so that the future blocks are committing to the correct transaction side.