Double-Spend Attacks Examined: Past, Present, and Future
Once repair wallet has completed, simply send the Bitcoin again as you normally would. Note that some users have had trouble with this method in the past and it may not always work. You may need to wait for the transaction to be "forgotten" in order for this method to work. Not all wallets support the creation of Full RBF transactions. Many wallets do not allow clearing all unconfirmed transactions to allow for making Full RBF transactions.
The following is a list of wallet software which do not support Full RBF transactions.
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If a wallet on this list does support FullRBF transactions, please let me know and provide instructions for that so I can add it above. A Child-Pays-For-Parent CPFP transaction is exactly as the name implies, a child transaction spends from an unconfirmed parent transaction and includes a transaction fee which covers both the fee of the child and the parent. However creating CPFP transactions are much more difficult as it requires spending from an unconfirmed transaction, something that many wallets do not allow. The best way to avoid having stuck transactions is to make sure that you are not spending from an unconfirmed transaction, and include a sufficient transaction fee.
If your wallet supports dynamic transaction fees, you should use those. If you want very fast confirmations, set the dynamic fees to choose the fastest fee possible. Dynamic fees are calculated by the wallet by analyzing the current state of the network and determining an optimal transaction fee from there.
Double-Spend Attacks Examined: Past, Present, and Future
Since the state of the network constantly changes, the optimal transaction fee calculated one day may not necessarily be the best fee for the next day. You must do this for each transaction you make otherwise you may end up paying a sub-optimal fee. If your wallet does not support any sort of fee rate or does not allow setting custom transaction fees, you should upgrade to a new wallet.
Using a fixed fee or fixed fee rate is no longer a good idea as the network constantly changes. Note that some wallets e. If you notice that your transactions are constantly being stuck even though you are using dynamic fees, you should check the settings of your wallet and perhaps even switch to a new wallet which has no limit to the transaction fee. Then when you want to send some Bitcoin, next to the Fee slider is a box labeled "Replaceable".
Check that box so that while the transaction is still unconfirmed you can replace the transaction with one that pays a higher fee. To increase the fee of a transaction that uses Opt-In RBF, right click the transaction in the history list and choose the "Increase Fee" option. Armory also allows for the creation of RBF transactions. When sending a transaction, choose the checkbox "Enable RBF".
To increase the fee of a transaction that uses Opt-In RBF, right click the transaction in the transactions list and choose the "Bump Fee" option. Transactions whose fee can be increased are labeled clearly in the transactions list. The fee estimation of most wallets has significantly improved since blocks have gotten full. If you're running an outdated version, it's likely that it is doing a bad job of guessing the fee.
That may cause you to either overpay or your transactions not getting confirmed in a timely fashion. To avoid fee-related delays in the future, it is advantageous to run a current version of your wallet software. If you are using Electrum, there is no equivalent to -zapwallettxes. The closest thing you can do is to restore your wallet from a seed. This will wipe your client of any unconfirmed transactions. Note: In the fee event, accelerators were widely used, but they seem to be rather expensive today in There are some services that take out-of-band requests to prioritize transactions that call themselves "transaction accelerators".
If I had seen Andrew's great reply earlier, I would probably spared myself from writing an explainer on Reddit , but now that I did I'll post it here as well, hoping that it might complement this thread, as it is targeted more at beginner level folks. In the last days we have been experiencing a sharp rise in price, which is historically correlated with many people transacting over the Bitcoin network.
Many people transacting over the Bitcoin network implies that the blockspace is in popular demand, meaning that when you send a transaction, it has to compete with other transactions for the inclusion in one of the blocks in the future. Miners are motivated by profits and transactions that pay more than other transactions are preferred when mining a new block. This post attempts to explain how the mempool works, how to optimize fees and that one does not need to worry about their funds.
In bitcoin there is no "in transit". Transactions are atomic meaning they either happen all at once or don't happen at all. There is no situation where they "leave" one wallet and are not simultaneously and instantaneously in the destination address. Either the transaction happened or it didn't. The only time you can't see the funds is if your wallet is hiding them because it is tracking a pending transaction and doesn't want you to try and spend funds that are already being spent in another transaction.
It doesn't mean the money is in limbo, it's just your wallet waiting to see the outcome. If that is the case, you just wait. Eventually the transaction will either happen or will be deleted by the network. Keep also in mind that this is not possible with any transaction RBF requires opt in before sending, f. If nothing else works and your transaction really needs a soon confirmation, you can try and contact a mining pool to ask them if they would include your transaction.
Double-Spend Attacks on Bitcoin and More | Gemini
Some mining pools even offer a web-interface for this: 1 , 2. If you are interested in trying out those options, here is a very helpful post that goes more into it: What can I do to make my stuck transaction confirm? Here you see how many transactions are currently and were historically waiting to be confirmed, i.
You can then deduct which layer your own transaction is currently at, and how far away from the top your position is miners work through the mempool always from the top, simply because the transactions on top pay them more. You can estimate that each newly mined block removes 1MB from the top see the third graph which shows the mempool size in MB. On average, a new block is produced every ten minutes. The second important observation is that the mempool "ebbs and flows", so even the lower paid transactions are periodically being confirmed at some point.
A you can influence directly, B you can observe in real time, but C is difficult to predict. So it's always a little tricky to tell when the first confirmation happens if you set your fees low. But it's quite certain that at some point even the cheap transactions will come through. Good to know : "fee" means the absolute amount of satoshis a transaction pays, and "fee rate" is the fee per weight of a transaction.
Waiting for a confirmation
Miners prioritize by the latter, because even if a "lighter" transaction pays less in absolute satoshis, it might be more profitable to include it into a block if it has higher fee rate, because it also takes up less space. Transactions are being broadcast by the full nodes on the network. Each node can adjust their settings for how long they keep unconfirmed transactions in their mempool.
This means that in the absolute worst case the unconfirmed transaction will simply disappear from the network, as if it never happened. Keep in mind that in those two weeks the coins never actually leave your wallet. A transaction with very low fee rate might also disappear from the network if the mempool goes over MB in size, because by default a Bitcoin Core node will purge transactions from its internal mempool, starting with the lowest fee rates first, while increasing its minimum acceptable fee rates that it will broadcast further.
You can read more about it here. Spikes this large have been very rare in bitcoin's history so far though, I think there was only one, briefly in January Important to know : even if the transaction has been forgotten by most nodes and doesn't appear anymore on blockexplorers, it is still a valid transaction and might have stayed in the mempool of a node somewhere. So it's better to use one of the inputs in another transaction to invalidate the original, "stuck" transaction otherwise you risk it to be re-broadcast and be confirmed when you already forgot about it. Here are some resources that can help you estimate fees when sending a bitcoin transaction, so you don't end up overpaying or underpaying unnecessarily.
Keep in mind that in order to take advantage of this, you need a proper bitcoin wallet which allows for custom fee setting. A selection of such wallets you can find here or here. Here you can see a visualization of how many unconfirmed transactions are currently on the network, as well as how many were there in the past.
Each coloured layer represents a different fee amount. The most interesting graph is the third one, which shows you the size of the current mempool in MB and the amount of transactions with different fee levels, which would compete with your transaction if you were to send it right now. But this also should help you to see that even the low fee transactions get confirmed very regularly, especially on weekends and in the night periods, and that the spikes in the mempool so far have always been temporary.
For that you can switch to higher timeframes in the upper right corner, f. Try higher timerframes as well.
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You clearly can see that the mempool is cyclical and you can set a very low fee if you are not in hurry. This is also an overview of the current mempool status, although less visual than the previous one. It shows you some important stats, like the mempool size, some basic stats of the recent blocks tx fees, size etc. You can see this projection in the left upper corner the blocks coloured in brown.
This is a simple estimation tool.